The Republic of China (ROC) and Taiwan are practically synonymous today, with the ROC being the official name of the government of Taiwan, but this wasn’t always the case. As the name suggests, the ROC used to be the government of China, based in Nanjing.

As an example for the difference of history between Taiwan and Republic of China, during World War 2 Republic of China was one of the main powers in the Allied power while Taiwan was under the Japanese Empire and many Taiwanese were conscripted to fight for the Axis power.